Table of contents
Human languagesMaking a principled distinction between one language and another is usually impossible. For example, the boundaries between named language groups are in effect arbitrary due to blending between populations (the dialect continuum). For instance, there are dialects of German very similar to Dutch which are not mutually intelligible with other dialects of (what Germans call) German.
Some like to make parallels to biology, where it is not always possible to make a well-defined distinction between one species and the next. In either case, the ultimate difficulty may stem from the interactions between languages and populations, with modification. (See dialect or August Schleicher for a longer discussion.)
LinguisticsMain article: Linguistics
Linguistics examines different theoretical perspectives on human language in detail. The Linguistics article is a useful introductory article about language.
Language taxonomyMain article: Language families and languages
The world languages have been be grouped into families of languages which have similarities. Major groupings are the Indo-European languages, the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the Sino-Tibetan languages
Constructed languagesMain article: Constructed language
One prominent artificial language, called Esperanto, was created by L. L. Zamenhof. It was a compilation of various elements of different languages, which was intended to be an easy-to-learn language.
Other writers, such as J. R. R. Tolkien, have created fantasy languages, for literary, linguistic, or personal reasons. One of Tolkien’s languages is called Quenya, which is a form of Elvish. It includes its own alphabet and pronunciations aligned with those of Germanic-heritage humans.
Non-human animal languageMain article: Non-Human Animal Language
While the term ‘Non-Human Animal Languagess’ is widely used, most researchers agree that they are not as complex or expressive as the human language. Some researchers also argue that there are significant differences separating human language from the communication of other animals, and that the underlying principles are not related.
Other researchers argue that a continuum exists between the communication methods of all animals. Almost all researchers agree that human language is more complex than communication between other animals. For more on communication among non-human animals, see The Animal Communication Project.
Formal languagesMain article: Formal languages
Mathematics and computer science use artificial entities called formal languages (including programming languages and markup languages). These often take the form of character strings, produced by some combination of formal grammar and semantics of arbitrary complexity.
Information about language on wikipedia
- The Common phrases in different languages article may be of interest to travelers.
- Linguistics is perhaps becoming Wikipedia's most useful introductory article about language.
- List of languages, ISO 639
- Linguistics basic topics
- (list of reference lists from List of reference tables)
- Computer-assisted language learning (a historical perspective)
- Deception and manipulation
- the Ethnologue, which provides a fairly complete list of languages, locations, population, and genetic affiliation.
- Extinct language
- Language policy
- Formal language
- General semantics
- Language education
- List of language academies
- Non-sexist language
- Philology and Historical linguistics
- Philosophy of language
- Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
- Second language
- Symbolic communication
- Speech therapy
- Mark Rosenfelder's Metaverse provides a useful listing of 4000 languages and dialects (grouped by their relationships), where the numbers one to ten in each language can be found
- Museum of Languages
- The Ethnologue, a catalog of the world's languages
- LingoTeach, GPL tool to learn languages
- Animal sounds in different languages
- Distribution of languages on the Internet
- Speech accent archive
- a collection of bird songs provides many kinds of bird songs